“we should learn to earn money with our brains” – vladislav surkov
RT present the transcript of the interview.
QUESTION: Thank you for agreeing to answer our question.
A new big project called Silicon Valley has been announced.
Why do you want to do this project now? What do we need? Fraddislav Surkov: First of all, this project is not called Silicon Valley.
This is a symbol to make things clearer.
I want to say immediately that Silicon Valley in the United States is first related to information technology.
This is a branch of the industry called it.
The Russian project, which the Russian president spoke and is implementing in accordance with his decision, covers five priority areas, which the president noted as \"a priority for our economic modernization \".
Of course, they include energy and information technology, because today these sectors are pioneers in the development of the world economy.
We urgently need biomedical technology for social security reasons because Russia should take care of its citizens and their health.
There is no doubt that biomedical technology plays a very important role here.
This is also a traditionally strong technology in Russia, and we should maintain and increase our advantages in this regard.
Telecom is another important area.
We do not need to explain that this industry is the strategic carrier of the entire world civilization and the development of the entire modern science and technology world.
The task was also handed over to Russia.
So, this is the five macro industries to be developed under the new project.
The president has said the project will be near Moscow.
Why is it so well implemented today, it\'s time.
There are several views on the timeliness of this project.
Today, our economy is mainly based on raw materials.
This is a primitive economy.
It may be unpleasant to say that, but we need to talk about it.
There are certain restrictions on the development of this economy.
It is determined by nature and is the most simplified type of economy, which is not compatible with the development level of world civilization today.
You extract something from inside the Earth and sell it, and your activity stops.
Second, mineral resources are exhausted in principle. If Russia wants to maintain certain status in the world, it should certainly be handed over to the next stage of civilization and the next stage of technological development, become a respected country and a country that considers its opinions.
Most importantly, our economy should be based on our intellectual strengths, our knowledge and the ability to invent new technologies.
This is a question of political influence, because in today\'s world, there is no weapon, and there is no strong army to replace the broad basic product of the word used by people in daily life.
Everything around us, what we use is, in general, not made or invented in Russia.
In this sense, we are a country that cannot be said to be a pioneer, a country that regards others as its own leaders.
I repeat that you do not have to read books or make lofty arguments in order to understand this.
Look at your pocket.
What kind of mobile phone do you have . . . . . . What kind of car you ride, what kind of household appliances you use and so on, you will understand a lot.
This is a question of political influence, fully disclosed in this capacity and achieved maximum results.
Those with unique knowledge and a dominant position in technology are the leaders of the modern world.
I don\'t think this is the last task in Russia.
But beyond that, we should almost literally understand something very simple.
At a higher level of technology development, I know what I\'m talking about now is trivial things, but let\'s remember that if labor productivity is high, then society will be rich.
Sometimes we forget that the standard of living depends first and foremost on the level of technological development.
Impossible Things a hundred years ago, today is possible.
I can give an example of crop yield.
I was recently in the lipensk area where I was born.
My friend who is doing the farming business there told me that the word crop yield may not be quite in line with modern vocabulary, may not be Silicon Valley, but it has increased several times since the reform was implemented.
Today, it can easily be compared to our level in the Soviet era.
Things don\'t happen in some sort of political change, and while they also play their role, the problem is that we just start applying modern technology in a way that\'s old-fashioned.
Therefore, you can calculate: the higher the output, the more money you earn, the more money you make, not only means businessmen, but also farmers, agricultural engineers and all those involved in the work have a higher income.
See what kind of harvesters they have!
If you used to have a sweaty head while riding a harvester, dust, straw and other things into your eyes, the modern harvester looks like an executive car.
Their cab is cool and comfortable.
This is also important for human health.
It can be said that these are pleasant conditions or comfortable working conditions.
This is an original example of how important technology is.
In our daily life, we tend to forget that if we don\'t keep our industry at a fairly high level of technology development, we will start to fall and become poorer and poorer.
In this sense, we are very close to that even today.
Over the past few decades, we have seen the capabilities of an economy that is entirely based on raw material mining.
The super effective world competition is very good for us, as are the unprecedented prices for fuel and energy.
However, we should strive to become the driving force for economic development.
Everyone is looking forward to the growth of the economy, not the other way around.
But let\'s be down to earth again.
Most of all, it\'s a social task because I absolutely believe
The material economy has long been unable to provide basic food for the country.
Perspective of terminology.
As I have already said, we cannot proceed from the fact that we will regenerate on an original basis for hundreds of years-we sell raw materials and buy a variety of products.
If we seize it and seize the heart of the economy, then we will understand that this is the way we live now.
I am sure that the economy of raw materials has exhausted the ability to improve the well
We are not like Kuwait.
We are a big country with a large population.
Our infrastructure is huge and the cost is high.
In addition, we should also remember that we are a northern country.
Our expenses are too high.
We will not be able to become a small, prosperous emirate;
We are a big country where oil cannot feed.
We should learn to make money with our brains.
In my opinion, what is in our minds is much more expensive and profitable than what is in our soil.
What is in our minds is the main natural resource of Russia and its people.
Our people are talented, and I absolutely believe that a country that gave the world an engineer like Zaurekin who invented television and changed the face of modern civilization, to be able to achieve greater success in this field.
That is why we should do so today, not after a day;
We can\'t delay the project any more.
It should be the locomotive and driving force behind these modernization efforts.
We should understand that this does not solve all our problems, but it can be a good way to promote our economic development.
I believe this project will accomplish its mission.
QUESTION: But why did you decide to build the town in an open area and why did you decide to start everything from scratchVS: It\'s a question worth discussing.
The decision caused various reactions.
We established excellent scientific centers in Siberia, near Moscow and many other areas during the Soviet period.
Excellent expert and height
Qualified scientists work there.
The population of these centers is very interesting and qualified.
In fact, these towns are made up of mathematicians, scientists, etc.
They have made great achievements.
But, nevertheless, a decision has been made and no one should be offended.
We should understand what I have said.
Our task is to enter a new stage of civilization.
Our mission is not to carry out Europe-
Style changes in our Soviet home, but building a new Russia with the new economy, in order to do so, it is sometimes very useful to find yourself in an open field.
I don\'t think Peter\'s first entry into the open field is accidental, because he understands that in the traditional organization of Russian life, he will do what he wants at a slower pace.
Sometimes you have to start from the beginning so that what is holding us back will not be holding us back.
We can try to create certain spaces in certain lands and certain areas, where we will make the most of everything in our lives and leave the worst situation, this is an obstacle in our daily life.
Will create the best conditions for these best people.
They will know they are the best.
They will know their best place in Russia and one of the best places in the world.
Thanks to this, we will be able to inject this new creativity and raise it to a new level for the people on whom our economy will depend in the future.
They are engineers, inventors and scientists.
In fact, I think these are the top jobs in Russia.
We have enough lawyers and economists.
We have a lot of professional representation.
But the first thing that will push his country forward is engineers.
We should keep this in mind and make our position clear to the engineer again.
We should make an engineer, an inventor, and a scientist representing the field of applied knowledge a major figure in the country.
We should build a country the way they want it.
If the engineer says we need a political system that he feels comfortable with, then that should be what the engineer says.
The whole life of our society should be gradually subject to the goals that will help our society to fully fulfill its tasks.
It should be comfortable for those who will push it forward.
In my opinion, these people today are mainly people and businessmen with technical knowledge, and of course they will help to apply these technological achievements in real life.
There is another reason why we try to start everything in a new place.
We want to create a unique and creative atmosphere.
It\'s really a new town, and it\'s vital to be international in the first place.
It should have the level and quality to attract the best experts from all over the world.
We should solve this problem.
I think that if two, three or four Nobel Prize winners are not living and working in this town for a long time, it means that we have not solved our task.
This is really the case.
The headquarters of the world\'s leading and most prestigious modern company should be located in this small town.
We should also have traditional research centers in our economy.
We should not think that the economy associated with raw materials is bad in itself, because in fact, it is good rather than bad.
This economic approach allows us to innovate.
We can invent new drilling methods.
It is also possible to create new technologies and optimize existing ones.
People can achieve new technological achievements.
But people can also be idle: just inject resources and do nothing and relax.
This is also a question of spiritual choice.
We want to be inventors, we want to continue to get things, we want to invent them. I think an invention should be brought again to the first leadership position in the country-why, in my opinion, a new place, even architecture is important.
I think the social environment is also very important.
It seems to me that a young man, a young scientist, should look around and say: Yes, this is the best place.
This is the most modern and comfortable place.
Even things around a person should be inspiring, including for aesthetic reasons.
We do have this concept.
I would like to reiterate that this is by no means devaluing the importance of our traditional territories where scientists and engineers work and where the state supports and will continue to support them in the future.
We really hope that this new facility, our new Innovation Complex, will be closely integrated with all the science centers in this country.
Question: This is a big one. scale project.
What is dead line for scale projects to implement: this is really a fairly large project.
But I don\'t think it\'s massive.
We have a big country that can only develop with the help of big projects.
Instead, I don\'t think it\'s big.
In the recent time, we have had the embarrassment of thinking.
We are afraid of any new adventure.
People say everything has been stolen.
We call every big project an adventure and say it will never succeed.
From my point of view, the loss of this thought is the main problem of this country.
I think we should have several such projects.
But as our budget is pressed on the ground-and it\'s hard-and there is a general understanding that this country, like the rest of the world, is being hit by a crisis, this may not be the easiest time to pass these important decisions.
At present, we have only one such project.
But I am sure we need to have a lot of these products and I think we will be able to do them even more.
Look at other countries.
They are not afraid of ambition.
Several universities will be built in India at a time.
Large corporate towns with a population of 500,000 are on the rise in China.
We are talking about 10,000 or 20,000 people, but there are 500,000 people in these cities in China.
This is serious.
But I just don\'t understand why we\'re worse.
I believe this is absolutely realistic and the scale of this project is proportional to the size of this country.
We have a big country, and the most important thing is a great country, although there may be people arguing about it today.
But we are a big country. We should be as high as our country.
What country are we? We are citizens of Russia. Russia is a great country with outstanding history and great achievements.
We should not grow up with us and pull down our common home together.
I think we should stand at our own height.
Duties at the rank.
So, whether someone likes it or not, we have big projects in Russia.
How will this project be carried out in terms of organization and who will oversee its implementation VS: first, a working group was set up to coordinate all of this work, as ordered by the chair.
There is a lot of work to be done, which of course requires considerable effort.
The chair has given me the privilege to lead this working group and its work.
As for the work itself, the current work, I think, will be the most important aspect of the overall decision-making.
A specialized agency will be set up to oversee the work.
The composition of this new body is now being decided.
It should include the representation of domestic organizations, our development institutions and scientific education institutions.
We believe that our major and prominent international partners should join at some stage.
This new body is about to form. The line-
With the development of the negotiations, its founders will expand, including negotiations with foreign partners, and their presence in this project is absolutely essential because their experience will help us avoid mistakes.
On the other hand, we need partners who are in direct contact with the global economy,
World-class technology industry and high-tech companies with all over the worldtech sectors.
I hope we can find this partner.
I hope there will be people in the world who believe in our project and agree to join it.
Of course, it\'s also important-the only thing we need right now is a special legislative decision on who will lead this new body.
It should be added that this is what the president has made public and made: I think that if there is no special tax system and administrative system in this town, it is very difficult for us to make it fully efficient and productive.
In my opinion, it needs a special system.
I think the president has the same view.
He developed and developed the task.
The issue needs to be discussed, however, I think it will be resolved, though.
A legislative decision will be passed, but I think they will come forward soon and implement it in the near and not far future.
It is also important to choose a general manager who directly manages the project.
I know the position of the Russian president.
He believes that the person\'s personality should be proportional to the size of the project.
He believes that this should be someone who has experience on one hand in developing large products and solving multi-dimensional tasks.
On the other hand, it is desirable for him to represent a private enterprise, because I believe that bureaucrats should not be given such a task.
Now that the president has raised this issue, it will be a big Russian business.
I think the president will decide who he will be.
I believe that the Russian prime minister has the same attitude towards the future development of the incident, especially in terms of organization.
This is the first step.
Of course, all necessary documents relating to the land issue have been prepared.
The business plan is being drafted and finalized.
We hope that in the end, or in the second half of next year, we will be able to order the design work.
In order to place an order, we should have some vision for what we want and be very detailed.
I repeat that we hope to complete the design within this short period of time.
Question: If we talk about the creation of this town, can we talk about any guidelines for duration: of course.
I think, it can be said that there are a lot of measurement methods if it is to be realistic.
The building itself may take three to seven years depending on how things will go.
This is a question of expansion.
The question is what to build first: the core of the town, which is clearly going to develop independently to a large extent, there is currently no further assistance from the state and the state should give up on all this, let the town develop itself.
I can say that about the deadline.
Of course, it\'s hard to say when a miracle will happen, and in this community, a divine spark may be ignited, which will attract entrepreneurs and scientists, at the same time, it will host research departments of university centers, laboratories and major basic materials companies and non-materials companies.
Basic materials company is also hightech companies;
Where is the venture capital?
It will appear in Russia, and small businesses will appear and operate in comfortable conditions.
The Silicon Valley you mentioned just now does not appear overnight.
Stanford University has actually started to develop. It was established long before those innovative Miracles appeared. Of course, it is difficult to say anything in advance.
Everyone knows how to build an industrial zone.
It\'s like a cooking book that everyone can read.
The problem is that not everyone can cook them.
The mechanical formula is clear: if I speak responsibly, what facilities should be built in this town, what kind of people should live there and work, and the necessary atmosphere will be created, it is useless to talk about this issue in my position, which is unpredictable in many ways, but we should do everything we can to do it.
I think it will happen for sure.
When we talk about the innovation economy-we often put the terms together-we mean everything that is based on innovation, based on things that are constantly improving . . . . . .
We have a very convenient location: it\'s a far away place and that\'s why it doesn\'t care about me.
Scientists sitting somewhere are inventing.
But in fact, the spirit of innovation is the daily culture.
Innovation is far from us.
It depends on the innovative spirit of society.
If a person who sees a problem wants to solve it instead of thinking that someone else can solve it for him, if he sees something and wants to improve it, that\'s how the innovation economy is.
This is not a miracle economy, it is not an economy of some basic knowledge, it is not an economy that will never appear in heaven --before-
This is our daily life.
Pen improvements and shoe improvements-all of this is an innovative economy.
Soap, washing powder and household appliances are the links of continuous improvement.
Millions of men and women around the world are trying to solve this problem.
If we do not have this spirit and do not have the desire to improve the lives around us, there will be no innovative economy in this country, because it is a clue and it is possible.
I think our country is moving in the right direction and we are going to achieve the desired effect of creating an environment where we can spread and move to other places more broadly, it will attract those who want to improve the daily life and living conditions of all and solve the daily tasks-because if not, then why are satellites sent to space and why are ships sailing, why do we stimulate our scientific data and scientists to make a comfortable life for concrete people for a long time.
All of this comes to our daily lives, and all the high achievements around us make us live better or worse. A hi-
If technology is of no use to people, it is impossible.
It just lost any meaning.
So I think the environment, the spirit of innovation, should be born in this new city.
I repeat it again.
It seems to me that this environment can be formed in 10 or 15 years.
After that, I think, it\'s possible to start a chain reaction that\'s hard to stop.
It will last for quite some time and will lead to a wave of invention in Russia.
People can then seek not only a barrel of oil or a pile of wood from Russia, but also advanced medical technology from Russia, which they can only obtain in Russia.
No matter how strange it sounds in principle, I know many people will grinning at what I said, and I expect a lot of doubt on this project, but it doesn\'t matter.
Skeptics will not make history.
It was created by those who thought that a better world was possible.
I personally believe that.
I think we will succeed.
Question: Can I ask you another question?
We ignored it somehow.
This is about development.
We say we can buy modern technology.
This is important.
I will try my best to answer your question.
Q: You have already said that this project was launched to give Russia its own new technology.
But we live in a global market.
Why can\'t we simply buy these new technologies abroad?
Many people are asking.
Also, this is not to say that someone is asking it, not even a question for us.
I think this is a model of Russian life.
We have already sold raw materials in 500.
We sell raw materials and buy the latest results including the latest foreign technology.
It flows in our blood, and it seems difficult for us to imagine how different things will be.
Nevertheless, first of all, there is nothing wrong with buying existing technology.
This is absolutely normal.
In addition, at this stage, Russia needs to acquire as many modern technologies as possible that exist in the open market.
Many entrepreneurs are right to say that the first thing we should do is modernize the existing domestic industry.
Our energy consumption is very high and our labor productivity is very low. This is a well-know fact.
To improve all of these parameters, to be more competitive and to fundamentally improve people\'s living standards, I have said that we only need to buy foreign technologies.
There\'s nothing wrong with this.
The worst thing is to start doing what they already have.
Many in this country think this is an innovative activity: we will produce what they already have abroad.
But what\'s the point of doing what they already have? In any case, I think, we should not try to produce things ourselves that are already produced without our world.
These things should be purchased and introduced in a wide range.
By the way, it seems to me that we are not doing enough because we need the rapid modernization of the industrial complex.
It should not drag on for a few years because the gap between US and other countries is widening year by year.
I think we should create more incentives, including fiscal and tax incentives, to ensure this rapid progress by purchasing the latest technology abroad and introducing it into the national economy.
This is a very normal process.
Some industrialists call it
Others call it a new type of industry.
But I think we do need new industrialism, and we need a new industry that meets modern standards.
In terms of ecology, this is true in terms of labor productivity and energy consumption.
But in some areas, we should take a special place and create something unique.
I don\'t think anyone, including ourselves, would be interested otherwise.
If we can\'t produce anything that only we can produce, then what are we living for each of us, you and I, sitting in our workplace.
Obviously, what attracts us in our profession is that we want to do better than others.
Others use our service because I may be wrong and I am talking about myself now and we are doing better than others.
So, in general, it is clear that our people should occupy this position in the world.
I don\'t think we should be leaders in all areas.
This is impossible.
And, I believe, there are some departments where we should reduce our activity-sorry, my criminal rhetoric-because they are moving forward hopelessly, or just because we can\'t embrace infinity-for both, at least.
That is why the president has set five priorities.
We are therefore moving in this direction and concentrating our efforts in these areas.
But what I want to emphasize is that the popular phrase \"Knowledge is power\" became so insignificant at the time and can also be interpreted as \"knowledge is power \".
\"I have said that if we can\'t invent unique new technologies that no one else will have, the extent or success of our economic development will always be questioned, because we will always rely on the knowledge of others, play a secondary role forever.
Let me give you an example.
I have been talking about it for a long time today. Let me give you a simple example.
Imagine a huge factory with raw materials.
The materials are extracted in one pit and taken to other places for processing.
Then produce and sell some kind of product.
There are all kinds of jobs in the factory.
You can sit in a pit with a spade or a modern spade, you can work in a workshop where primary processing is done in dust and noise, you may work in a workshop wearing a white dressing gown, you may be an engineer, wearing underwear, or sitting on the board, after all you can be a director. You may choose.
This is how the world economy was built.
Russia has to choose what kind of person it wants to be: driller, limber, or director.
I chose the director.
It seems to me that it is better for this country because we are an educated and capable country.
We will argue if someone has different ideas.
Russia should also have a place in the international division of labor.
I think, again, I go back to the question that a more complex economy that controls intellectual resources always benefits from world technology.
We will not be rich enough, we will not be able to, let me repeat again, to maintain the standard of living for our citizens at a decent level worthy of our great country, if we do not become white
International division of labor the white-collar in.
We should be them.
So what we are saying now is that we should not buy everything abroad.
We must learn to do something by ourselves.
We will then sit on the board instead of in the pit.