us. and them.
He was trembling, breathing, straight.
The compressed air flows under the silicone skin, triggering an actuator that lifts her arm and lifts the corners of her mouth to a quiet dem smile.
She seemed to calm down and her eyes stared at a room with a platform, tubes and wires through the ankles.
She blinked and turned her face to me.
I couldn\'t help but see her mechanical gaze.
Are you surprised that I am a robot? âx80x9d she asks.
I look like a human being, don\'t I?
Her observation, as per the book, had an unfortunate effect and brought me to notice many aspects that she did not have.
Kokoro Company developed in Japan, Actroid-
DER android can serve as a spokesperson for the future in corporate events, and this role does not require a lot of personality depth.
But, despite spending $250,000 on her development, her actions are unusually elegant and her features lack flexibility, adding a little crazy low key to her lovely face.
Then, she had a habit that seemed to nod temporarily between talking, as if she was eating something stronger than electricity.
While the more advanced Actroid model has carried out several rounds of technical exhibitions, this time it has been shipped to Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh to gain the appearance of personality.
This is the hope of at least five optimistic graduate students at the University\'s Entertainment Technology Center, who have won a 15-
During the semester of the week, fembot became better and reduced the bot.
They began to rename her yume dream in Japanese.
Student colleague Christine Barnes says kokkokkok has developed her physical reality, but that is not enough in itself
Producer of the Yume project.
What we have to do is shift the focus from realism to credibility.
The Actroid robot is part of a new generation of robots. The design of artificial organisms is not as a programming industrial machine, but as more and more independent agents, which can play a role in our family and school, and offices previously conducted only by humans.
The Vanguard infantry is the Roomba vacuum cleaners, they mess up while cleaning the carpet, and the cute electronic pets, they will sit up and turn over as ordered but not on the carpet
More sophisticated robots may come up soon, cooking for us, folding clothes, or even looking after our children, or taking care of our elderly parents, while we watch on computers a few miles away
Reed Simmons, a robot professor at Carnegie Mellon University, said that in five or ten years, robots will often play a role in the human environment.
Robots are becoming more and more human, but as the 2010 Robot World Cup in Singapore shows, they still have a long way to go.
Such a prospect raises a series of problems.
How many everyday human functions do we want to outsource to machines?
What should they look like?
Do we want robots like Yume to hang out in our kitchen or do we want mechanical arms tied to the tailgate to do better without us climbing out?
How will the robot revolution change the way we connect with each other?
A cute robotic baby seal developed in Japan to entertain the elderly at the elderly care center, which is accused of potentially cutting them off from others.
There are similar concerns about future nanny robots.
Of course, there are also stop attempts to create robots that are always willing to be romantic.
A New Jersey company launched a talking touch-screen phone last year.
The sensitive robot companion increases the possibility that another human is disconnected.
In short: Are we ready for them?
Are they ready for us?
On a hill a mile from the Entertainment Technology Center, Herb sat still and fell into meditation.
HERB is the abbreviation for home exploration robot butler, developed by Carnegie Mellon University in partnership with Intel Labs Pittsburgh as a prototype service robot that may take care of the elderly and the disabled in the near future.
Heber is a common family with Segway wheels on his legs and a lot of computers on his body.
But unlike the beautiful Youm, Herb has something similar to spiritual life.
Now, the robot is improving its functionality by running alternative scenarios to manipulate the representation of objects stored in its memory, with tens of thousands of scenarios per second.
I call it a dream, says Siddhartha benivasa, a builder at Compaq and a professor at the Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute.
It helps people intuitively understand what robots are actually imagining what they are doing.
Traditional robots, the kind you might find --
The welded frame can be programmed to perform a very precise sequence of tasks, but can only be carried out in a strict structural environment.
In order to coordinate human space, robots like HERB need to perceive and handle unfamiliar objects and move without hitting people who move themselves.
Combo\'s perception system consists of a camera and a laser navigation device, mounted on the boom above his mechanical arm. (
\"We tend to think that the herb is him,\" said Srsrinivasa . \".
Maybe it\'s because most housekeepers do.
And he\'s kind of like beef. âx80x9d)
Compared with the hydraulic industrial robot boom, Kangbao\'s boom is driven by pressure
Cable sensing system similar to the human tendon: if a person wants a robot to be able to support an older widow on the way to the bathroom without letting her through the door, it is necessary.
In the lab, a student at srinivasa GmbH clicked on a button and issued a command to pick up the juice box sitting on a nearby table.
The laser rotation of herbâx80 x99 s forms a month-
D. The grid maps the position of nearby people and objects, and the camera locks the possible candidate for the target juice box.
The robot slowly reaches out and grabs the box to keep the box upright.
He put it down gently, as ordered.
For those who are not active, this achievement does not seem to make any sense.
When I showed it to my mom, Srinivasa said she didn\'t understand why HERB wanted to pick up the cup so hard.
The problem is not herbal medicine, but the precedent set for him.
For those of you whose brains have evolved over millions of years to coordinate these tasks, it is very simple to pick up drinks.
It is also a snapshot of industrial robots programmed for specific actions.
The difference between a social robot like herb and a traditional factory robot is that he knows that the object is a juice box, not a teacup or a cup of milk, and he has to deal with it in a different way.
His understanding of the problem involves a lot of mathematics and computer science, but it boils down to accepting information and intelligently processing it in the context of everything he already knows about what his world looks like, Srinivasa explains.
When HERB is introduced to a new object, the previously learned rules inform him of the movement of the pressure --
Sensitive arms and hands.
Does the object have a handle?
Will it break or overflow?
Srinivasa plans the grip of herbs by studying human behavior.
In the bar, for example, he watched the bartender grab it from the bottle with an intuitive hand.
He simplified the action into an algorithm and now HERB has put it in his tracks.
Of course, the world\'s herbs are beginning to master a controlled laboratory environment.
It will be more challenging to let him play a role in real human space.
Heber had a digital bicycle horn that he honked to let people know that he was near them;
If a room is busy and crowded, he will take the safest action, stand there and whistle to everyone.
This strategy works in the lab, but not very well in the office.
Humans can use a lot of unconscious moving vocabulary, and we know how to politely move around someone on our path and how to perceive when we invade someone\'s personal space.
Research at Carnegie Mellon University and elsewhere shows that social robots are expected to follow the same rules.
We feel uncomfortable when they make stupid mistakes.
Snackbot, another mobile robot being developed by Carnegie Mellon University, takes orders and provides snacks to people at the School of Computer Science.
Sometimes it brings the wrong snacks or the wrong changes.
If the robot first warns them that it may go wrong or apologize when it screws up, people will be more tolerant.
Then there is a change in human nature.
A developer at Snackbot said that sometimes people steal snacks from robots.
We saw it on the video.
Like many social robots, Snackbot is a cute guy with a height of 4 feet and a half, and the head and cartoon features almost indicate a person.
In addition to reducing expectations, this also avoids so-
\"Incredible Valley\" is a term invented by Japanese robot pioneer Mori more than 40 years ago.
Mori observed that, to some extent, we responded positively to robots with human appearance and movement, but when they became too close to lifelike without reaching it,
While most robotics experts believe there is no reason for tipto feet on the edge of the cliff, some people think that the incredible Valley is the terrain that needs to be crossed, and if we are going to the other side, like us, inspire compassion again, not disgust.
It can be said that the bravest of these explorers is Shihei Yixiong, the incredible Valley girl Yume, aka the driving force behind Actroid --DER.
Shihei has supervised the development of a series of innovative robots, some of which are more disturbing than others
Robot Interaction (HRI).
Just over the past year, he has played an important role in creating a shocking realistic replica of Geminoid DK, a professor at the University of Denmark, he has a goat beard, stubble and a winning smile and a \"telepresence\" mobile phone robot called Elfoid, whose size, shape and quasi-cute level of human ancestors.
Once it is perfected, you can chat with friends with her own Elfoid, and her doll phone attachment will mimic your movements.
So far, Ishii\'s most notorious work is the early Geminoid model of his own robotic twins.
When I visited his lab at the ATR Intelligent Robot and Communication Lab in Kyoto, Japan, the two of them wore black clothes from head to foot, and the robot sat in a chair behind Shihei Yixiong, wearing the same black hair and thoughtful anger.
Shihei Yixiong, who also taught at Osaka University two hours later, said he created a silicone splitter so he could control the robot through motion in two places at the same time
Capture the sensor on his face so he/it can interact with ATR\'s colleagues over the Internet while he just stays in Osaka to teach.
Like other HRI pioneers, Shihei Yixiong is interested not only in technical envelopes, but also in philosophical envelopes.
His robot is a cognitive test balloon, and the imperfect mirror is designed to reveal the human nature by creating a more accurate approximation, to observe our response to them, and to use that response, more convincing things in fashion.
He pointed to his twins and said, \"you believe I am real, you believe that it is not human . \".
But this distinction will become more difficult as technology advances.
If you can\'t tell the difference in the end, are you really interacting with people or machines?
An ideal use for his twins, he says, is to put it in his mother\'s distant home, and he rarely visits his mother so that she can be with him.
Why does your mother accept robots? âx80x9d I ask.
Two faces roared at me.
Said one man, because this is myself.
Before the robot version of the son can interact with the mother like the real son, in addition to the perfect imitation, more is needed.
Witness the challenges HERB faces when navigating in a simple human physical environment.
Other robots are trying to enter the dangerous zone of human mental state and emotion.
Nilanjan Sarkar of the University of van der Burg and his former colleague, Wendy Stone, who is now working at the University of Washington, have developed a prototype robot system that can play simple ball games with autistic children.
The robot monitors the child\'s mood by measuring small changes in heartbeat, sweating, gaze and other physiological signs, and when it feels bored or deteriorated, it changes the game, until the signal shows that the child is having a good time again.
The system is not complex enough for complex language and physical interactions of actual treatment.
But this represents the first step in copying the human benchmark: knowing that others have ideas and feelings and adjusting your behavior based on those thoughts and feelings.
In a 2007 paper entitled \"What is human?
Peter Kahn, a developmental psychologist at the University of Washington, along with Shihei Yixiong and other colleagues, presented a set of nine other psychological benchmarks to measure success in designing humanoid robots.
What they emphasize is not the technical capabilities of robots, but how they are perceived and treated by humans.
Think about whether we think robots are worth the basic moral considerations that we naturally give to others.
Kahn lets kids and teenagers play guessing games with a cute little humanoid named Robovie.
After a few rounds, the experimenter will suddenly interrupt, just as it is the robot\'s turn to guess, telling the robot that it is time to put it in the closet.
Robovie would protest, claiming it would be unfair not to allow his turn.
You\'re just a robot.
The experimenter replied that it was not important.
When he was rolled away, Robovie continued to protest relentlessly.
Of course, what is interesting is the response of the robot, which is operated by another researcher, but the response of the human subject.
More than half of the people we tested said they agreed with Robovie that it was unfair to put him in the closet, which was a moral response, Kahn said.
Humans, especially children, may sympathize with a robot that is treated unfairly, which may not be surprising, after all, that children are linked to dolls and action figures.
For a robot that can make moral judgments, this seems to be a far more distant goal.
Can a machine be built into a machine with conscience, arguably the most unique attribute of human beings?
For example, in the case that human morality is constantly being placed on the battlefield, moral awareness will be most directly useful.
Robots are preparing to play an increasingly complex role in combat, in the form of remote control drones and ground robots --
Vehicles with organic guns and grenades installed.
Governments are developing a model that may one day be able to decide when and when to fire on their own.
It\'s hard to imagine holding the robot accountable for the consequences of making the wrong decision.
But we certainly hope it will make the right choice.
The farthest researcher in designing ethical robots is Ronald Alkin at Georgia Tech in Atlanta.
Arkin said that what motivates him to work is the ethical limitations of robots in combat, but the ethical limitations of human beings.
He cited two incidents in Iraq. S.
The helicopter pilot allegedly wiped out the wounded fighters and another Marine soldier ambushed in the city of Hadisa killed civilians.
Affected by fear or anger, he said, the Marines may shoot first and then ask questions, resulting in the death of women and children.
In a chaotic battle, robots are not affected by unstable emotions.
As a result, Arkin believes that it is unlikely that they will make mistakes under artillery fire or attack non-combatants.
In short, they may make better moral decisions than people.
In the arkin system, robots trying to determine whether or not to fire will be guided by the moral governor built into their software.
When the robot is locked on the target, the governor checks a set of pre-programmed constraints according to the rules of engagement and the laws of war.
For example, enemy tanks in a war field are likely to getahead;
A funeral at a cemetery attended by enemy armed fighters
Violation of the rules of engagement.
The second component, the moral adapter, will limit the weapon selection of the robot.
If a weapon that is too powerful can cause unexpected damage, say a missile could destroy an apartment building in addition to a tank
Restrictions Before system adjustment.
It\'s like a guilty robot model, says Arkin.
Finally, he left space for human judgment through a responsible consultant, a component, if one decides that the robot is too hesitant or over-authoritative, it allows him or her to be above the moral governor of conservative planning.
The system is not really ready yet
The world is in use, Arkin admits, but he is trying to get the military to see the ethical implications.
Let the international community think about this issue.
Back at Carnegie Mellon, the last week of the spring semester, I \'ve come back to watch the Yume project team show its revamped android to the entertainment tech center.
From realism to credibility, this is a bumpy journey.
Lin, the team\'s computer programmer, designed a user-
The friendly software interface allows you to control the movement of yume more smoothly.
But trying to empower a female robot to detect the face and make more real eye contact is only half the success.
First of all, her eyes are staring at me, and then her head is in a mechanical two-step.
Help cover up her dark side
According to the blog of the project, the team imagined a character of Yume, inclined to do so, matching a young girl with costumes, a little bit goth, a little bit punk, all of this is for your attention.
Of course she will.
But even though her hip gear includes long fingerless gloves designed to hide zombies --
Stiff hands and dark lipstick cover up the fact that she can\'t completely close her mouth and she\'s the same old ActroidDER.
At least now she knows where she is.
The team has learned the power to lower expectations and has given Yume a new opportunity.
I\'m not human!
I will never be exactly the same as you.
In fact, I like to do android.
Her progress impressed the Yume team.
Kokoro\'s technicians will pack Actroid next month-
Back to Tokyo.
Christine Barnes, who lobbied to leave android at the Entertainment Technology Center, did not succeed, offered to cradle android when they put it into crates.
The men politely refused.
They still wore her fashionable clothes and sealed up Youm in unison.